The bacteria that cause urinary tract infections typically enter the bladder via the urethra. However, infection may also occur via the blood or lymph. It is believed that the bacteria are usually transmitted to the urethra from the bowel, with females at greater risk due to their anatomy. After gaining entry to the bladder, E. Coli are able to attach to the bladder wall and form a biofilm that resists the body's immune response.
Gram-negative intestinal flora comprised 86.1% (192 patients) of the causative microorganisms. Of these, 20.3% of the pathogens demonstrated resistance to ofloxacin and 19.8% to cefuroxime. The prevalence of Escherichia coli, the most common pathogen of UTI, significantly declined in the current study, from 70.5% in 1991 to 56% in 2000.
Treatment with antimicrobials aims to eradicate the bacteria causing infection. The chosen antimicrobials depend on extent of infection (uncomplicated or complicated), common local pathogens, and resistance patterns. Examples of antibiotics for uncomplicated UTI include: •Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole •Fluoroquinolones •Nitrofurantoin
Cranberries have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs). Cranberries contain 2 compounds with antiadherence properties that prevent fimbriated Escherichia coli from adhering to uroepithelial cells in the urinary tract. Approximately 1 dozen clinical trials have been performed testing the effects of cranberries on the urinary tract.