Definition: Adult Still's disease is a rare type of arthritis that features a sore throat, a salmon-colored rash and a high fever that spikes once or twice a day. Joint pain tends to develop a few weeks after these initial signs and symptoms. Adult Still's disease is aninflammatory type of arthritis, similar to rheumatoid arthritis. This inflammation can destroy affected joints, particularly the wrists. Cause: The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown, but researchers are investigating the possibility that it might be triggered by some type of infection. Some people experience just one episode of adult Still's disease. In other people, the condition persists or recurs. Pathophysiology: The cause of adult-onset Still's disease is not known, but it presumably involves interleukin-1 (IL-1), since drugs that block the action of IL-1ß are effective in treatment. Interleukin-18 is expressed at high levels
Symptoms: The symptoms may include Sore throat, Fever, Rash, Achy and swollen joints, Muscle pain. The signs and symptoms of this disorder may mimic those of other conditions, including mononucleosis and a type of cancer called lymphoma Diagnosis: there are two types of criteria- minor and major criteria, In which at least two of these being major diagnostic criteria. There's no single test used to diagnose adult Still's disease. Blood tests can help rule out other conditions that have similar symptoms.Treatment: Include Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), Steroids, Methotrexate, Biologic response modifiers It is treated with anti-inflammatory drugs. Steroids such as prednisone are used to treat severe symptoms of Still's. Other commonly used medications include hydroxychloroquine, penicillamine, azathioprine, methotrexate, etanercept, anakinra, cyclophosphamide, adalimumab, rituximab, and infliximab. Newer drugs target interleukin-1 (IL-1), particularly IL-1ß. A randomized, multicenter trial reported better outcomes in a group of 12 patients treated with anakinra than in a group of 10 patients taking other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Other anti-IL1ß drugs are being developed, including canakinumab and rilonacept.
Statistics: The approximate Adult Stills Disease incidence in Southern Europe, Italy was found to be 1,79,678. Adult-onset Still's Disease is rare and has been described all over the world. The number of new cases of AOSD per year is estimated to be 0.16 new cases per 100,000 populations. Prevalence is estimated at 1.5 cases per 100,000-1,000,000 population