The term heart disease is often interchanged with the term cardiovascular disease. It generally refers to the conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke. By controlling high blood pressure, quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy diet and by maintaining low cholesterol levels heart diseases can be prevented.
Diagnosis and symptoms include cardiac catherization, cardiac MRI, picturing the heart, a CT scan, a coronary angiography, stress testing, echocardiography, nuclear heart scan, etc. Treatment for heart valve problems include medications, heart valve surgery and for heart attack medications like clot busters should be administered as soon as possible, coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
From 1980 to 2000, the age-adjusted CHD mortality rate in Italy fell among persons aged 25 to 84 years, resulting in 42 930 fewer CHD deaths in 2000. Approximately 40% of this decrease was attributed to treatments and 55% to changes in risk factors.