Pathophysiology:The Leishmaniases are diseases caused by protozoan parasites from more than 20 Leishmania species that are transmitted to humans by the bites of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. The disease can present in three main ways: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral leishmaniasis The cutaneous form presents with skin ulcers, while the mucocutaneous form presents with ulcers of the skin, mouth, and nose, and the visceral form starts with skin ulcers and then later presents with fever, low red blood cells, and enlarged spleen and liver.
Treatment:The treatment is determined by where the disease is acquired, the species of Leishmania, and the type of infection. For visceral leishmaniasis in India, South America, and the Mediterranean, liposomal amphotericin B is the recommended treatment and is often used as a single dose A number of topical treatments may be used for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Which treatments are effective depends on the strain, with topical paromomycin effective for L. major, L. tropica, L. mexicana, L. panamensis, and L. braziliensis.
Statistics:Starting from 1989 Italy experienced an increase of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases over a baseline of 10 to 30 cases reported annually. The number of cases peaked in 2000 and 2004 with more than 200 cases/year, and subsequently declined to reach on average one third of the 2000 peak value in the period after 2010.Epidemic determinants and reasons for VL decline in the Campania region remain largely unexplained, despite the information available on canine reservoir and phlebotomine vectors in Italy.