Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine. It may be benign. If white blood cells are found in addition to red blood cells, then it is a signal of urinary tract infection. Types: Hematuria is of two types 1. Microscopic hematuria - Small amounts of blood can be seen on light microscopy or urinanalysis. 2. Macroscopic hematuria –Gross hematuria Diagnosis: Sometimes the cause of hematuria can be elucidated solely on the basis of the medical history and urine testing, or urinalysis.
Causes Urinary tract infection with bacteria. The vast majority of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli, with a smaller percentage due toKlebsiella,pneumonia and Staphylococcus saprophyticus , Nephrolithiasis,stones in the kidney, bladder or ureter ,Trauma. Cancer of the kidney, prostate or bladder Other causes includes: Glomerular bleeding: eg: IgA nephropathy ("Berger's disease"), Alport syndrome, thin basement membrane disease ,Sickle cell disease.
Statistics During the follow-up period, 9.5% of the hematuria patients became hematuric/proteinuric. Hematuria/proteinuria patients had the highest risk of developing renal insufficiency. The presence of hypertension at detection of urinary abnormalities did not affect the renal function; however, if proteinuria appeared after the age of 40 years, these patients had a higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. The incidence of IgA nephropathy in the present subjects was as high as 143 cases per 1 million per year.