Stenosis means narrowing of an opening, such as a heart valve. Stenosis of the mitral valve limits the forward flow of blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle. This may cause a back-up of blood and fluid in the lungs. Mitral stenosis most commonly develops many years after a person has had rheumatic fever, although many patients diagnosed with mitral stenosis don't recall ever having the illness.
Causes: Diagnosed with mitral stenosis don’t recall ever having the illness. During rheumatic fever, the valve becomes Mitral stenosis most commonly develops many years after a person has had rheumatic fever, although many patients inflamed. Over time, the leaflets of the inflamed valve stick together and become scarred, rigid and thickened, limiting its ability to open completely.
Symptoms: Many of the symptoms of mitral stenosis, such as shortness of breath and fatigue, result from a back-up of blood in the lungs. Other symptoms of mitral stenosis may include quick weight gain; weakness; dizziness; swelling in the ankles, feet and/or abdomen (edema); and/or heart palpitations (irregular heartbeat).
Treatment: A balloon valvotomy is the preferred treatment for mitral valve stenosis. It is a procedure that widens the mitral valve so that blood flows more easily through the heart. A balloon valvotomy is a minimally invasive procedure. A doctor uses a thin flexible tube (catheter) that is inserted through an artery in the groin or arm and threaded into the heart. When the tube reaches the narrowed mitral valve, a balloon device located on the tip of the catheter is quickly inflated. The narrowed or fused mitral valve leaflets are separated and stretched open as the balloon presses against them. This process increases the size of the mitral valve opening and allows more blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle.
Statistics: Marfan syndrome affects males and females equally, and the mutation shows no geographical bias. Estimates indicate that approximately 60 000 (1 in 5000, or 0.02% of the population) to 200 000 Americans have Marfan syndrome. Each parent with the condition has a 50% chance of passing it on to a child due to its autosomal dominant nature. Most individuals with Marfan syndrome have another affected family member, but approximately 15-30% of all cases are due to de novo genetic mutations — such spontaneous mutations occur in about 1 in 20 000 births. Marfan syndrome is also an example of dominant negative mutation and haploinsufficiency. It is associated with variable expressivity. Incomplete penetrance has not been definitively documented. Ninety-five solitary sleepers were aged from 1 to 11 months (average 4.1 months) and consisted of 63 males (age range 1 to 11 months) and 32 females (age range 1 to 10 months). The 38 shared sleepers were aged from 1 week to 12 months (average 2.6 months) and consisted of 17 males (age range 2 weeks to 5 months) and 21 females (age range 1 week to 10 months). The male to female ratio in the solitary sleepers was approximately 2:1 and in the shared sleepers was 0.8:1, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.02).