Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine. It may be benign. If white blood cells are found in addition to red blood cells, then it is a signal of urinary tract infection. Types: Hematuria is of two types 1. Microscopic hematuria - Small amounts of blood can be seen on light microscopy or urinanalysis. 2. Macroscopic hematuria –Gross hematuria Diagnosis: Sometimes the cause of hematuria can be elucidated solely on the basis of the medical history and urine testing, or urinalysis.
Causes Urinary tract infection with bacteria. The vast majority of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli, with a smaller percentage due toKlebsiella,pneumonia and Staphylococcus saprophyticus , Nephrolithiasis,stones in the kidney, bladder or ureter ,Trauma. Cancer of the kidney, prostate or bladder Other causes includes: Glomerular bleeding: eg: IgA nephropathy ("Berger's disease"), Alport syndrome, thin basement membrane disease ,Sickle cell disease.
Statistics End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a major public health problem, affecting 1 in 1,000 individuals and with an annual death rate of 20% despite dialysis treatment. IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of glomerulonephritis, a principal cause of ESRD worldwide, affecting up to 1.3% of the population. Kidneys of patients with IgA nephropathy show deposits of IgA-containing immune complexes with proliferation of the glomerular mesangium.