Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic disease caused by a dysregulated immune response to host intestinal microflora. The two major types of inflammatory bowel disease are ulcerative colitis (UC), which is limited to the colon, and Crohn disease (CD), which can affect any segment of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus, involves "skip lesions," and is transmural. There is a genetic predisposition for IBD, and patients with this condition are more prone to the development of malignancy.
In a population-based retrospective cohort study of 136,178 individuals with asthma and 143,904 individuals with COPD, Brassard and colleagues found a significantly increased incidence of IBD.Compared with the general population, the incidence of CD in asthma and COPD patients was 27% and 55% higher, and the incidence of UC was 30% higher among those with COPD.
The intestinal complications of IBD are caused by intestinal inflammation that is severe, widespread, chronic, and/or extends beyond the inner lining (mucosa) of the intestines.Intestinal ulceration and bleeding are complications of severe mucosal inflammation in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.