Naegleria infection is a rare and usually fatal brain infection caused by an amoeba commonly found in freshwater lakes, rivers and hot springs. Exposure occurs during swimming or other water sports. travels up the nose to the brain, where it causes severe damage. Most people who have naegleria infection die within a week.Naegleria infections may also occur when contaminated water from other sources.
The most distressing aspect is that the fatality rate has remained more than 95%. there have been 133 PAM infections from 1962 through 2014 with only three survivors. PAM cases were reported in the developed countries in people who swim in fresh water during the hot summer months. However, prolonged hot and dry periods due to global warming are causing higher freshwater temperatures.
The primary treatment for naegleria infection is an antifungal drug, amphotericin B. An investigational drug called miltefosine (Impavido) is now available for emergency treatment of naegleria infection. Other drugs are clotrimazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, and ketoconazole, with varying degrees of efficacy.The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin is effective against Naegleria species in vitro and in murine models.