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The integumentary system is involved in protecting the body from invading microbes (mainly by forming a thick impenetrable layer), regulating body temperature through sweating and vasodilation, or shivering and piloerection (goose bumps), and regulating ion balances in the blood. A change in blood flow is produced due to stimulation of mast cells. It also helps synthesize vitamin D which interacts with calcium and phosphorus absorption needed for bone growth and maintenance. Hair on the skin guards entrance into the nasal cavity or other orifices preventing invaders of getting further into our bodies. Our skin also helps maintain balance by excretion of water and other solutes (i.e.) the keratinized epidermis limits fluid loss through skin.