The term heart disease is often interchanged with the term cardiovascular disease. It generally refers to the conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke. By controlling high blood pressure, quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy diet and by maintaining low cholesterol levels heart diseases can be prevented.
Diagnosis and symptoms include cardiac catherization, cardiac MRI, picturing the heart, a CT scan, a coronary angiography, stress testing, echocardiography, nuclear heart scan, etc. Treatment for heart valve problems include medications, heart valve surgery and for heart attack medications like clot busters should be administered as soon as possible, coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
At the midpoint of the century (1950–1960), Singapore was characterized by a very young population, with those below 20 years of age making up over 50% of the total population. By the end of the century, the proportion of the population over 65 years had more than doubled, from 2.2% in 1970 to 5.7% in 1990 and is expected toreach 10% by 2012 and 20% by 2033.