Tularemia is a serious infectious disease caused by the intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis. It is also known as Pahvant Valley plague, rabbit fever, deer fly fever, and Ohara's fever.
In the 1950s, thousands of people were infected each year. This number has dropped considerably, to less than 200 each year, and those who are infected now tend to be those who are exposed to the organism in its rural habitat.
Tularemia can be effectively treated with antibiotics such as streptomycin or gentamicin, which are given by injection directly into a muscle or vein.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) regard F. tularensis as a viable biological warfare agent, and it has been included in the biological warfare programs of the United States, Soviet Union and Japan.