alexa Steroids | Journal of Steroids and Hormonal Science

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Steroids are a type of organic compound that contains a characteristic arrangement of four cycloalkane rings that are joined to each other. Examples for steroids are the the sex hormones estradiol and androgenic hormone, dietary fat cholesterol, and also dexamethasone an anti-inflammatory drug. The core of steroids is composed of twenty carbon atoms bonded together that take the form of four fused rings: three cyclohexane rings (designated as rings A, B and C) and one cyclopentane ring (the D ring). The steroids vary by the functional groups that are attached to this four-ring core and by the oxidation number of the rings. Sterols are special forms of steroids, in which hydroxyl group is present at position-3 and a skeleton derived from cholestane derived skeleton. All steroids are made in cells either from the sterols lanosterol (animals and fungi) or from cycloartenol (plants). Both lanosterol and cycloartenol are derived from the cyclization of the triterpene squalene. Some of the common categories of steroids are animal steroids, plant steroids and fungus steroids. Steroids in animals can be seen in vertebrates and insects. Insects consist of Ecdysteroids that controls moulting. Different types of vertebrate steroids are Sex steroids, Corticosteroids, Anabolic steroids. Plant steroids include Phytosterols, Brassinosteroids which include several plant hormones and Steroidal alkaloids foud in Solanaceae. Ergosterols are the steroid hormones that are seen in fungus. Steroids are oxidized mainly by cytochrome P450 oxidase enzymes, such as CYP3A4. These reactions introduce oxygen into the steroid ring and allow the structure to be broken up by other enzymes, to form bile acids as final products. These bile acids can then be eliminated through secretion from the liver in the bile. The expression of this oxidase gene can be upregulated by the steroid sensor PXR when there is a high blood concentration of steroids.

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