Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by abnormalities in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. The causes of type 2 diabetes are multi-factorial and include both genetic and environmental elements that affect beta-cell function and tissue (muscle, liver, adipose tissue, pancreas) insulin sensitivity. Although there is considerable debate as to the relative contributions of beta-cell dysfunction and reduced insulin sensitivity to the pathogenesis of diabetes, it is generally agreed that both these factors play important roles
Treatments for type 2 diabetes focus on: controlling blood sugar, achieving a healthy weight, improving activity levels. Both lifestyle changes and medical treatments can help to control the disease. Monitoring blood sugar is an essential part of diabetes treatment. People with diabetes need to monitor and record their blood sugar on a regular basis. Monitoring frequency varies.Type 2 Diabetes afflicts close to 250 million people in world today, 27 million in the United States alone.
.The number of hospitalized type 2 diabetic patients was 157,549. Among 27,895 offspring, 27.9% had a parent or sibling also hospitalized for type 2 diabetes. The familial relative risk (RR) ranged from 2.0 to >30, depending on the number and type of pro bands. The highest RRs of type 2 diabetes were found in individuals who had at least two siblings affected by type 2 diabetes, irrespective of the parental disease. Adoptees showed no risk from adopted parents.