Pathophysiology:The Leishmaniases are diseases caused by protozoan parasites from more than 20 Leishmania species that are transmitted to humans by the bites of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. The disease can present in three main ways: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral leishmaniasis The cutaneous form presents with skin ulcers, while the mucocutaneous form presents with ulcers of the skin, mouth, and nose, and the visceral form starts with skin ulcers and then later presents with fever, low red blood cells, and enlarged spleen and liver.
Treatment:The treatment is determined by where the disease is acquired, the species of Leishmania, and the type of infection. For visceral leishmaniasis in India, South America, and the Mediterranean, liposomal amphotericin B is the recommended treatment and is often used as a single dose A number of topical treatments may be used for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Which treatments are effective depends on the strain, with topical paromomycin effective for L. major, L. tropica, L. mexicana, L. panamensis, and L. braziliensis.
Statistics: A total of 61 cases were reviewed, including 58 patients with CL and three patients with ML. Treatment was effective in most patients. Treatment failure was reported in six patients with L. panamensis (one fluconazole, one ketoconazole), L. infantum (one excision, one fluconazole), L. tropica (one paromomycin/methylbenzethonium), L. braziliensis (1 paromomycin/methylbenzethonium). In 11 (18 %) patients treatment had to be interrupted due to adverse events, and in eight patients (13 %) a second treatment had to be applied.