A stress fracture is an overuse injury. It occurs when muscles become fatigued and are unable to absorb added shock. Eventually, the fatigued muscle transfers the overload of stress to the bone causing a tiny crack called a stress fracture. Stress fractures often are the result of increasing the amount or intensity of an activity too rapidly. They also can be caused by the impact of an unfamiliar surface (a tennis player who has switched surfaces from a soft clay court to a hard court); improper equipment (a runner using worn or less flexible shoes); and increased physical stress (a basketball player who has had a substantial increase in playing time). Most stress fractures occur in the weight bearing bones of the lower leg and the foot. More than 50 percent of all stress fractures occur in the lower leg. Pain with activity is the most common complaint with a stress fracture. This pain subsides with rest. It is very important that during the medical examination the doctor evaluates the patient's risk factors for stress fracture.
The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) has been available since 1977 and is used mainly for adults over 65 and those with certain chronic illnesses such as diabetes or pulmonary disease. Only one dose is needed unless it is given prior to age 65. When a second dose is needed, it should be given at least 5 years after the first dose. The PPV is not effective in children less than 2 years old.
The most important treatment is rest. Individuals need to rest from the activity that caused the stress fracture, and engage in a pain-free activity during the six to eight weeks it takes most stress fractures to heal .If the activity that caused the stress fracture is resumed too quickly, larger, harder-to-heal stress fractures can develop. Re-injury also could lead to chronic problems where the stress fracture might never heal properly. In addition to rest, shoe inserts or braces may be used to help these injuries heal. Major Research is been done in Switzerland by EU Research on Antimicrobial Resistance and Virometix Vaccines.