Pathophysiology: Adult ADHD is known as Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is a neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder which includes significant problems with executive functions (e.g., attentional control and inhibitory control) that cause attention deficits, hyperactivity, or impulsiveness which is not appropriate for a person's age. it causes impairment. It is associated with functional impairments in some of the brain's neurotransmitter systems, particularly those involving dopamine and norepinephrine. The dopamine and norepinephrine pathways that originate in the ventral tegmental area and locus coeruleus project to diverse regions of the brain and govern a variety of cognitive processes. The dopamine pathways and norepinephrine pathways which project to the prefrontal cortex and striatum are directly responsible for modulating executive function.
Symptoms: Inattention, hyperactivity (restlessness in adults), disruptive behaviour, and impulsivity are common in ADHD. These symptoms must be observed in multiple settings for six months or more and then the treatment is started. It can be caused by genetics, environment, and society. It usually begins in childhood, but may continue into the adult. A combination of genes and environmental factors likely plays a role in the development of the ADHD condition.The treatment includes stimulants (psychostimulants) like methylphenidate (Concerta, Metadate, Ritalin, others), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), dextroamphetamine-amphetamine helps treat the signs and symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity. Atomoxetine and antidepressants work slower than stimulants and may take several weeks.
Statistics: The estimated crude prevalence rate of current ADHD in USA was 5.8%. Adult ADHD was significantly associated with lower age, low educational level, unemployment, marital status (never married and divorced), and rural residency. The worldwide prevalence at between 5.29%1 and 7.1% in children and adolescents,2 and at 3.4% (range 1.2–7.3%) in adults.3 The prevalence of ADHD in very young children (aged <6 years) or later in adult life (aged >44 years).