Pathophysiology:The Leishmaniases are diseases caused by protozoan parasites from more than 20 Leishmania species that are transmitted to humans by the bites of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. The disease can present in three main ways: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral leishmaniasis The cutaneous form presents with skin ulcers, while the mucocutaneous form presents with ulcers of the skin, mouth, and nose, and the visceral form starts with skin ulcers and then later presents with fever, low red blood cells, and enlarged spleen and liver.
Treatment:The treatment is determined by where the disease is acquired, the species of Leishmania, and the type of infection. For visceral leishmaniasis in India, South America, and the Mediterranean, liposomal amphotericin B is the recommended treatment and is often used as a single dose A number of topical treatments may be used for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Which treatments are effective depends on the strain, with topical paromomycin effective for L. major, L. tropica, L. mexicana, L. panamensis, and L. braziliensis.
Statistics: About 95% of CL cases occur in the Americas, the Mediterranean basin, the Middle East and Central Asia. Between years 2000 and 2001, even though the number of participating kennels decreased, the number ofLeishmania seropositive samples increased, most likely indicating that there was increased infection/incidence of disease in these participating kennels. In current studies of Foxhound kennels, a similar 9.8% overall seropositivity/seroprevalence was observed, but among high risk kennels the seropositivity and presence of polysymptomatic disease is 13.5%.