Oppositional defiant disorder involves specific temperamental and behavioral/emotional characteristics, independent of ADHD. Patients with ODD have differentially higher levels of behavioral and emotional difficulties. It was observed that children had an oppositional behavior rate of 33.3% and grade retention rate of 30.7%. The study has showed that 5.1% of children mostly had comorbidity of post traumatic disorder and attention deficit disorder.
Treating oppositional defiant disorder included several types of psychotherapy and training for child — as well as for parents. Treatment may last for several months or longer. Psychiatrists have conducted a survey recently and it was observed that approximately 1 in 10 children under 5 years of age showed signs of psychiatric illness, which correlates with adult figures. The primary disorders were identified to be depression, ADHD, and oppositional defiant disorder.
Translational tools as applicable to autoimmune disorders: antibody-proteases as a generation of highly informative and unique biomarkers to monitor subclinical and clinical stages of demyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS) PPT Version |