Disease pathophysiology: Syphilis is a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. The primary route of transmission is through sexual contact; it may also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or at birth, resulting in congenital syphilis. Other human diseases caused by related Treponema pallidum include yaws (subspecies pertenue), pinta (subspecies carateum) and bejel (subspecies endemicum).
Disease Statistics: In univariate logistic regression analyses, coinfections were significantly more often diagnosed in men who have sex with men (MSM, OR = 5.4) than in heterosexuals. Multivariate analyses showed a significant interaction between age and sexual preference. Subsequent stratified analyses by sexual preference showed a linear rise in coinfections with age in MSM. In heterosexuals, by contrast, bacterial coinfections peaked in those aged 19 or less; they had 27% of coinfections, while having only 14% of monodiagnoses and 10% of consultations. 77 per cent of the 189 cases of syphilis reported in 2014 were born in USA.
Treatment: The first choice for the treatment for syphilis is intramuscular benzathine penicillin G Doxycycline and tetracycline in alternative choice to those who are allergic to penicillin’s Resistance to macrolides, rifampin, and clindamycin is often present. Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, may be as effective as penicillin-based treatment. It is recommended that a treated person avoid sex until the sores are healed.