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Cell surface receptors usually known as transmembrane receptors, they are vital proteins that mediate communication between the cell and also the outside world. Animate thing ligands (cytokines, growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters, or cell recognition molecules) bind to the receptor, triggering conformational changes that initiate intracellular signal pathways (signal transduction). Cell surface receptors regulate a mess of biological pathways needed for cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, and survival.