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Anthrax toxin is a three-protein exotoxin secreted by virulent strains of the bacterium, bacillus anthracis-the causative agent of anthrax. The toxin was first discovered by Harry Smith in 1954. Anthrax toxin is composed of a cell-binding protein, known as protective antigen (PA), and two enzyme components, called Edema factor (EF) and Lethal factor (LF). These three protein components act together to impart their physiological effects. Anthrax is a disease caused by bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming, gram positive, rod-shaped bacterium. The lethality of the disease is caused by the bacterium's two principal virulence factors: (i) the polyglutamic acid capsule, which is anti-phagocytic, and (ii) the tripartite protein toxin, called anthrax toxin. Anthrax toxin is a mixture of three protein components: (i) protective antigen (PA), (ii) edema factor (EF), and (iii) lethal factor (LF). Toxic symptoms are not observed when these proteins are injected individually into laboratory animals.
Related Journals: Journal of Critical reviews in Microbiology, Research Journal of Toxins, International Journal of Current Toxins Research.