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Journal of Biochemical and Microbial Toxicology
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About the Journal

The Journal of Biochemical & Microbial Toxicology is an open access journal dedicated to publish the cutting-edge research in toxicology; with a special focus on mechanisms of toxicity, dose response complexities, tests for toxins, toxic responses, and factors affecting toxic responses such as metabolism and disposition. Studies on various toxins such as Botulinum neurotoxin, Tetanus toxin, and Staphylococcal toxins are equally welcome. In addition to research scholars, the Journal caters to a cross section of audience comprising academicians, research scholars, practitioners, students and policy makers.

The exemplary Editorial Board comprised of acclaimed scientists from all over the world supervises the review process. Every manuscript is subjected to an unbiased but, stringent peer review process. In addition to Research Articles, the Journal publishes high quality Commentaries, Reviews, and Perspectives aimed at encapsulating the latest breakthroughs and developments in the field of Toxicology. The Journal is thus admirably comprehensive, and maintains the highest standards in terms of quality and originality.

The Journal of Biochemical & Microbial Toxicology endeavors to an encouraging platform to authors for making their valuable contributions towards the field.

The Journal is using Editorial Manager System for quality in peer review process. Editorial Manager is an online manuscript submission and review system. Review processing is performed by the Editorial Board members of Clinical & Medical Biochemistry or outside experts; at least two independent reviewers approval followed by editor approval is required for acceptance of any citable manuscript. Authors may submit manuscripts and track their progress through the system, hopefully to publication. Reviewers can download manuscripts and submit their opinions to the editor. Editors can manage the whole submission/review/revise/publish process.

 

Subtilase cytotoxin

Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is an AB5 cytotoxic produced by some strains of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains. There are three well-characterised AB5 toxin sub-families: (i) cholera toxin (Ctx) and the closely related E. coli heat labile enterotoxins (LT-I and LT-II); (ii) pertussis toxin (Ptx); and (iii) Shiga toxin (Stx). SubAB is lethal for mice, causing extensive microvascular thrombosis as well as necrosis in the brain, kidney, and liver and apoptosis in the spleen, kidney, and liver. Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) is an etiologic agent of hemorrhagic colitis. 

Related Journals: Research Journal of Toxins, Food and Chemical Toxicology, Nature Reviews Microbiology,
Toxins

Biotoxins

Biotoxins are substances which are both toxic and have a biological origin. They come in many forms and can be produced by nearly every type of living organism: there are mycotoxins (made by fungi), zootoxins (made by animals) and phytotoxins (made by plants). Biotoxin is a poisonous substance produced by a living organism. Biotoxins are classified as biological hazards.

Related Journals: Toxins-Open Access Toxinology Journal, Harmful Algae, Oceanography, The Science of the total environment, Analytical Biochemistry, Marine Pollution Bulletin.

Endotoxins

Endotoxins are the lipid portions of lipopolysaccharides(LPSs) that are part of our outer membrane of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria. The endotoxins are liberated when the bacteria die and the cell wall breaks apart. Endotoxins are heat stable lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes.

Related Journals: Clinical Microbiology Reviews, Mediators of Inflammation, Ophthalmology, Annual review of biochemistry, The American Journal of Pathology, Advances in immunology.

Exotoxins

Exotoxins are proteins produced inside pathogenic bacteria, most commonly gram-positive bacteria, as part of their growth and metabolism the exotoxins are then secreted or released in to the surrounding medium following lysis. Exotoxins are usually heat labile proteins. Exotoxins are the most poisonous substances known.

Related Journals: Clinical Microbiology Reviews, The Journal of clinical Investigation, The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Infection and Immunity, American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology, Journal of Clinical Microbiology

Helicobacter pylori toxin

Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that causes chronic inflammation (infection) in the stomach and duodenum, and is a common contagious cause of ulcers. The toxic factors produced by H. pylori can act at different levels. At the epithelial cell level H. pylori enzymes generate toxic molecules: ammonia (urease), lysolecithin (phospholipases) and acetaldehyde (alcohol dehydrogenase). H. pylori are adapted to live in the harsh, acidic environment of the stomach. These bacteria can change the environment around them and reduce its acidity so they can survive. The shape of H. pylori allows them to penetrate your stomach lining, where they’re protected by mucus and your body’s immune cells are not able to reach them.

Related Journals: Journal of Medical Microbiology, European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Toxicology, Natural Toxins

Cyanotoxins

Cyanotoxins are toxins produced by bacteria called cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae). The release of these toxins in an algal bloom into the surrounding water occurs mostly during cell death and lysis (i.e., cell rupture) which leads serious threat to most of the aquatic animals. Cyanotoxins can be produced by a wide variety of planktonic cyanobacteria. Some of the most commonly occurring genera are Microcystis, Anabaena, and Planktothrix (Oscillatoria). For cyanobacteria to bloom on the surface of the water, the environment must have intense light, high pH, high temperature, and an increased accessibility to nitrogen and phosphorous.

Related Journals: International Journal of Medical Microbiology, Toxicological Sciences, Journal of Natural Toxins, Journal of Clinical toxicology

Helminths and Nematodes

The helminths are worm-like parasites that feed on a living host to gain nourishment and protection, while causing poor nutrient absorption, weakness and disease in the host. The clinically relevant groups are separated according to their general external shape and the host organ they inhabit. There are both hermaphroditic and bisexual species. The definitive classification is based on the external and internal morphology of egg, larval, and adult stages. Knowledge of the various stages in relation to their growth and development is the basis for understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of helminth diseases.

Nematodes are structurally simple organisms. Free-living species are abundant, including nematodes that feed on bacteria, fungi, and other nematodes. The availability of the complete genome sequence of the nematodes, coupled with the worm's size, growth rate, ease of culturing, and the realization that basic biological mechanisms and disease processes between worms and humans are highly conserved, makes this genetically tractable model a remarkable opportunity to dissect and identify in vivo the cellular processes involved in toxin-induced cell dysregulation and death.

Related Journals: Journal of Parasitology; Journal of Nematode Morphology and Systematics; Journal of Parasitology Research; Indian Journal of Nematology; Journal of Helminthology; Asian Journal of Nematology

Chemical toxins

In any life forms (human or creatures) if a chemical activity can cause demise, transitory or lasting mischief can be called as Chemical toxins. Poisonous quality is a property of every substance that is determined by molecular structure. Microbial toxins are created by microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi. Microbial toxins are vital destructiveness determinants in charge of microbial pathogenicity and/or evasion of the host immune response.

Related Journals: Toxins - Open Access Toxicology Journal; Journal of Toxicology Research; Journal of Toxicology; Drug and Chemical Toxicology Journal; Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Journal

Dinoflagellate toxins

Dinoflagellates involve a various class of flagellated protists found in marine and fresh water. Because of the perplexing way of the marine condition these microorganisms have created novel biosynthetic apparatus for the generation of metabolites with unusual chemical structures and potent biological activities.

These microalgae are related with the generation of numerous marine poisons. A large portion of these toxins are caused by neurotoxins which present themselves with highly specific effects on the nervous system of animals, including humans, by interfering with nerve impulse transmission

Related Journals: Journal of Plankton Research; Microorganisms - Open Access Microbiology Journal; Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health; International Journal on Algae; Journal of Harmful Algae

Tetanus Toxin

These are also called as spasmogenic toxins or TeNT and these are highly potent neurotoxins, which are released by Clostridium tetani in the absence of Oxygen. Soil is the place where they are usually found and through which they enter our body but their function in soil is unknown yet. TeNT acts spreading from the spaces between the tissues to the vascular and lymphatic system and usually enter the nervous system at the myoneural junctions and then through nerve trunks from where retrograde axonal transport by using dyneins.

Related Journals: Annals of Infections and Antibiotics, Toxicology: Open Access, Immunological Disorders & Immunotherapy, Immunochemistry & Immunopathology, Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuroimmunology

Staphylococcal toxins

Staphylococcal toxins are the Exotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and is frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.

Staphylococcal toxins that act on cell membranes consist of alpha toxin, beta toxin, delta toxin, and several bicomponent pollutants. Strains of S. Aureus can host phages, which include the prophage Φ-PVL that produces Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), to growth virulence. The bicomponent toxin PVL is related to excessive necrotizing pneumonia in youngsters. The genes encoding the additives of PVL are encoded on a bacteriophage located in community-associated MRSA strains.

Related Journals: Journal of Tropical Diseases & Public Health; Journal of Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis; Applied Microbiology: Open Access; Journal of Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Botulinum neurotoxin

Botulinum neurotoxin is one of the most poisonous biological substance known, it is produced by bacterium Clostridium botulinum. It is also called as miracle poison. its neurotoxic effect is caused by preventing the release of neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Botulinum neurotoxin are the cause of botulism in humans. The lethal dose of Botulinum Neurotoxin is 1.3 –2.1 ng/kg intravenously or intramuscularly and 10-13 ng/kg when inhaled. Botulinum toxin is further divided into seven types i.e. A-G. This neuro toxin commercially used in medicine, cosmetics and research. Medically used in treatment of muscle spasticity and migraine.

Related Journals:  Journal of Tropical Diseases & Public Health; Journal of Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis; Applied Microbiology: Open Access; Journal of Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Anthrax toxin

Anthrax toxin is a three-protein exotoxin secreted by virulent strains of the bacterium, bacillus anthracis-the causative agent of anthrax. The toxin was first discovered by Harry Smith in 1954. Anthrax toxin is composed of a cell-binding protein, known as protective antigen (PA), and two enzyme components, called Edema factor (EF) and Lethal factor (LF). These three protein components act together to impart their physiological effects. Anthrax is a disease caused by bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming, gram positive, rod-shaped bacterium. The lethality of the disease is caused by the bacterium's two principal virulence factors: (i) the polyglutamic acid capsule, which is anti-phagocytic, and (ii) the tripartite protein toxin, called anthrax toxin. Anthrax toxin is a mixture of three protein components: (i) protective antigen (PA), (ii) edema factor (EF), and (iii) lethal factor (LF). Toxic symptoms are not observed when these proteins are injected individually into laboratory animals.

Related Journals: Journal of Critical reviews in Microbiology, Research Journal of  Toxins, International Journal of Current Toxins Research

Pasteurella multocida toxin

Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) is the major pathogenic determinant of pasteurella multorida. The species p. Mukorida causes various diseases of animals and human, the toxin is the causative agent of the economically important atrophic rhinitis in swine. Stimulation of several signalling pathways is induced by PMT. Most remarkable is a potent mitogenic effect. Phospholipase C and the small GTPase rho are activated due to stimu¬lation of heterotrimeric g proteins of the Gαq and Gα12/13 family.

Related Journals: Journal of Toxins, Journal of Pathogens, Journal of General Microbiology, Journal of Immunology.

Vibrio RTX toxins

Multifunctional-auto processing rtx toxins are the unique family of secreted proteins toxins predominantly produced by the vibrio species. The best charac¬teristic of these toxins is produced by v. Cholerae. In the eukaryotic cell this toxin has three distinct biochemical activities resulting in autoprocessing, covalent crosslinking of actin and inactivation of rho-family gtpases, ultimately resulting in destruction of the actin cytoskeleton. Related toxins produced by v. Vulnificus and v. Anguillarum have some similar mechanisms of action. These toxins may assist the bacterium to evade host immune defences.

Related Journals: International Journal of Microbiology, International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Science and Toxicology, Journal of Natural Toxins, Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.

Gastrointestinal Imaging

Imaging of the gastrointestinal tract is very useful for research and clinical studies of patients with symptoms arising from the gastrointestinal tract and in visualising anatomy and pathology. In gastrointestinal imaging, a small amount of radioactive material is introduced into the body, and a special camera records the movement and uptake of the radiotracer within different organs of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The resulting images provide information about these organs and the function of our digestive system. This should not be performed in pregnant or breastfeeding women because of possible risks to the fetus or infant.

Related Journals: 

Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America, Clinical Endoscopy, Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal Nursing
 
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