Isoprenoids or terpenoids are subclass of the prenyllipids (terpenes, prenylquinones, and sterols), represent the oldest group of small molecular products synthesized by plants and are probably the most widespread group of natural products.
Terpenoids can be described as modified terpenes, where methyl groups are moved or removed, or oxygen atoms added. Inversely, some authors use the term "terpenes" more broadly, to include the terpenoids. Compounds formally derived from isoprene (2-methylbuta-1,3-diene), the skeleton of which can generally be discerned in repeated occurrence in the molecule. The skeleton of isoprenoids may differ from strict additively of isoprene units by loss or shift of a fragment, commonly a methyl group. Plant terpenoids are used extensively for their aromatic qualities. They play a role in traditional herbal remedies and are under investigation for antibacterial, antineoplastic, and other pharmaceutical functions. Terpenoids contribute to the scent of eucalyptus, the flavors of cinnamon, cloves, and ginger, the yellow color in sunflowers, and the red color in tomatoes. Well-known terpenoids include citral, menthol, camphor, salvinorin A in the plant Salvia divinorum, the cannabinoids found in cannabis, ginkgolide and bilobalide found in Ginkgo biloba, and thecurcuminoids found in turmeric and mustard seed.
Review articles are the summary of current state of understanding on a particular research topic. They analyze or discuss research previously published by scientist and academicians rather than reporting novel research results.
Review article comes in the form of systematic reviews and literature reviews and are a form of secondary literature. Systematic reviews determine an objective list of criteria, and find all previously published original research papers that meet the criteria. They then compare the results presented in these papers. Literature reviews, by contrast, provide a summary of what the authors believe are the best and most relevant prior publications.
The concept of ""review article"" is separate from the concept of peer-reviewed literature. It is possible for a review to be peer-reviewed, and it is possible for a review to be non-peer-reviewed.
Last date updated on September, 2014