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OPEN ACCESS PUBLISHING
Open Access publications are very important for communication of research findings worldwide. The benefits of Open Access journals are apparent enough to raise awareness among scientists and other stakeholders to support for more Open Access Publications from the publishing groups. The traditional publishing model required authors to relinquish their rights, thereby placing limitations on the impact and exposure of their work. However, in the scientific community, scholarly articles are written mainly for creating an impact to wider audience with minimal interest in the financial rewards or royalties. This has resulted in the publishers becoming sole beneficiaries, making millions in profits, while the scientists and the public suffer the consequences of high costs and the lack of access to expensive scientific journals.
To overcome this problem, in the recent years, Open Access publishing has been made a prerequisite for getting support from funding agencies. Universities, libraries, publishers, and governments reflect upon the required policies and insist scholars to publish their research work through freely available repositories. The Open Access initiative has opened a new realm of publishing models by encouraging more Open Access publishing groups to deliver sustainable Open Access publications and research data. Various publishers like Pubmed Central, Biomed Central, and PLoS One have emerged as promising tools to provide immediate free Open Access of scientific publications to the users. Continuous growth is ensured to take place within the scientific arena as Open Access publishing starts moving firmly into the mainstream.
Open Access journal publishers can be classified into three major types; born Open Access publishers, conventional publishers, and non-traditional publishers. Born-OA Publishers such as PLoS One are commercial or non-profit publishers established for the sole purpose of publishing Open Access journals, and they normally make use of the Creative Commons Attribution License for their publications. Authors usually retain their copyrights and users are needed to acknowledge and cite the authors in future references. Conventional Publishers like SpringerLink are originally conventional commercial and non-profit journal publishers who began to experiment with Open Access publishing programs. The articles are published in both print and digital form. A license is used that is similar to the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License. Unless all authors choose the Open Access option, this program results in journal issues having a mix of Open Access and restricted access articles. Non-Traditional Publishers such as EJournal and The Public-Access Computer Systems Review are no-profit journals developed by scholars who began to publish free digital journals using existing institutional infrastructure and volunteer labour. Authors were allowed to retain their copyrights. While some of these journals discontinued publication and others were altered into non-profit enterprises, they provided a model for other Open Access publishers, especially with the advent of internet age.
Although the benefits of Open Access are quite apparent, the controversy regarding the quality and peer-review process in Open Access journals is an ongoing debate. Many prominent scientists are sceptical on the quality of the content published in Open Access journals owing to the belief that there is no rigorous peer-review process. Contrary to these widespread misconceptions, Open Access Publishing provides an opportunity for the improvement of scientific quality assurance by not only being fully compatible with traditional peer review, but also enabling public, collaborative or community peer review. In other words, Open Access allows interactive discussions and reviews by being open to all interested members of the scientific community and the public. Open Access also gives reviewers unlimited access to relevant publications across different scientific disciplines thus, facilitating quality improvement of scientific publications.
OMICS International is an emerging born Open Access publisher that works under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. This permits anyone to copy, distribute, transmit, and adapt the work, provided if it is the original work and source is appropriately cited. OMICS International strongly believes that removing barriers to research published online will greatly aid to the progress in scientific and technical disciplines.
Most of the open access publishers attempt at removing cost or price barriers, but there seems to be much more than that. Though open access removes price barriers, the repeated commercial usage of the same content is permitted by some providers, while some others restrict it. The responsibility of protecting the information while it traverses various media and citations rests with the publisher, in order to safeguard its originality. The demand for scholarly content is addressed by the publisher that also provides strategic support for conferences and interactive teaching sessions.By serving as a platform of knowledge transfer that serves academic and research purposes, an open access publisher is mostly serving the overall acceleration of scientific discoveries.
Open Access Publishing is a regulatory mechanism which allows sharing of content that is free of cost with the removal of licensing and copyright restrictions to a great extent. Subject to proper attribution of the composer or author, such kind of publishing advocates sharing of content for a constructive purpose that is self-evident. It can also be used an indiscriminate manner, which might lead to unwanted breach of copyright. The condition of proper citation, is nevertheless, stressed in open access publishing circles.