|Identifying risk factors in âin uteroâ transmission of human immunodeficiencyvirus type 1 (HIV-1) is important when designing preventive interventions. Several lines of evidence suggest that Natural Killer (NK) cells have an important role in antiviral defence. However, the Human Leucocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) molecules are inhibitory of these cell-mediated immune responses and could, therefore, promote the propagation of HIV-1 infection across the placental interface thus increasing the risk of vertical transmission.
Some viruses have developed the ability to increase HLA-G expression to evade host immune response and an altered HLA-G expression induced by viruses may influence mothes immune response and, theoretically, the vertical virus transmission. Studies associating polymorphic sites at coding and UTRHLA-G regions in vertical transmission or only in children presenting or not vertical HIV transmission have been reported. (Ana Paula M Fernandes, Human Leukocyte Antigen-G 14 Base Pairs Polymorphism in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus -1 Perinatal Transmission).