|Epidemiology is the study of the circulation and patterns of health events, health characteristics and their origins or influences in clear populations. It is the cornerstone method of public health research, and helps inform policy decisions and evidence-based medicine by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive medicine. Pharmacoepidemilogy is a part of epidemiology since it deals with the effects of drugs in large numbers of people or in a population.
Scholarly peer review is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field, before a paper describing this work is published in a journal. The work may be accepted, considered acceptable with revisions, or rejected. Peer review requires a community of experts in a given (narrowly defined) field, who are qualified and able to perform reasonably impartial review.