Viruses gain entry into host cells via several sites such as the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract. Once an infection has occurred, the virus may replicate in host cells at the site of infection or they may also spread to other locations. Animal viruses typically spread throughout the body mainly by way of the bloodstream, but can also be spread via the nervous system. Viruses have several methods to counter host immune system responses. Some viruses, like HIV, destroy immune system cells. Other viruses, such as influenza viruses, experience changes in their genes leading to antigenic drift or antigenic shift. In antigenic drift, viral genes mutate altering virus surface proteins. This results in the development of a new virus strain that may not be recognized by host antibodies. Antibodies connect to specific virus antigens to identify them as 'invaders' that must be destroyed. While antigenic drift happens gradually over time, antigenetic shift occurs rapidly. In antigenetic shift, a new virus subtype is produced through the combination of genes from different viral strains. Antigenetic shifts are associated with pandemics as host populations have no immunity to the new viral strain. Open Access should be seen as a means of accelerating scientific discovery by providing free and unrestricted access of scientific knowledge via the Internet. An essential role of Open Access is the long-term preservation of peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles and research data. An Open Access publishing group focuses on to encourage innovation, socio-economic development, and flow of knowledge around the world. One such, Open Access is OMICS which is committed ultimately for public welfare to stimulate the growth of global science, as well as maintain the quality of scientific achievements at the same time. Bio crimes related articles are published in rice research open access journal , this journal publishes quality manuscripts which has good impact on the society .
Last date updated on July, 2014