A financial institution licensed as a receiver of deposits, an organisation, which does most or all of the following: receives demand deposits and time deposits, pays interest on them, and honours instruments drawn on them, discounts notes, makes loans,and invests in securities; collects cheques, drafts and notes; certifies depositors cheques; and issues drafts.
There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals. Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on February, 2021