Most higher organisms reproduce sexually and they produce offspring through the union of reproductive cells from two different parents. Eg: Violets produce showy flowers that attract insects that carry pollen from one plant to the next. Offspring resulting from this cross-pollination are genetically distinct from either parent. Violets also produce flowers that never open, and are self-pollinated. The resulting offspring are genetically similar, though not identical, to the parent. And violets send out creeping stems. Plants sprouting from these runners are genetically identical to the parent plant.
Genetic differentiation within species occurs as a result of sexual reproduction, in which genetic differences between individuals are combined in their offspring to produce new combinations of genes in the DNA. Genetic diversity is usually mentioned agriculture and maintaining food security.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel âroadsâ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Last date updated on September, 2014