A biomarker can be any quantifiable, patient-derived characteristic that provides insight into the presence or absence of disease, the severity of the disease, or the patient's prognosis. This can include assays measured in the clinical laboratory, imaging endpoints measured using echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography, and imaging measures ascertained by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. In the field of pediatric cardiology there is a specific need for biomarkers to guide patient care, since many pediatric patients cannot express their symptoms precisely, and the symptoms and signs of heart disease may overlap with those of other disease.
Bernstein HS (2014) Future Prospects for Biomarkers in the Management and Development of Novel Therapies for Pediatric Heart Disease. Pediat Therapeut 4: e126.