Background: High blood pressure is a major contributor to metabolic syndrome (MS) and the selection for hypertension in most cases is associated with higher prevalence of MS. However, the relation between hypertension subtypes and MS is not well defined.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2004-2006, which undertook cluster multistage sampling to a representation sample in rural villages of Liaoning, China. A total of 4273 untreated hypertensive subjects aged ≥ 35 years were selected. The metabolic syndrome was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program.Hypertension consisted of three subtypes: Isolated Systolic Hypertension (ISH), Isolated Diastolic Hypertension (IDH),and Systolic-Diastolic Hypertension (SDH).
Results: Of the study population 23.4% (men: 12.0%, women: 33.4%) had metabolic syndrome. Overall, 24.4%(men: 22.2%, women: 26.3%), 10.0% (men: 9.5, women: 10.5%), and 65.6% (men: 68.4%, women: 63.3%) of the untreated hypertensive individuals had ISH, IDH, and SDH, respectively. The MS prevalence in untreated persons was 23.2% (men: 11.3%, women: 31.9%) for ISH, 18.7% (men: 9.5%, women: 26.1%) for IDH, and 24.1% (men: 12.5%, women: 35.2%) for SDH. Among those with MS, 24.1% (men: 20.9%, women: 25.2%) had ISH, 8.0% (men: 7.5%, women: 8.2%) had IDH, and 67.8% (men: 71.5%, women: 66.7%) had SDH.
Conclusions: SDH was the most prevalent hypertensive subtype; however, the prevalence of MS was similar in persons with ISH or SDH. Additionally, the high frequency of SDH in the hypertensive population made SDH the most common hypertensive subtype in persons with MS.