The immune alterations in patients with liver cirrhosis vary, they are not universal and only a few have been able to be correlated with the severity of the disease or its prognosis. The best characterized alterations correspond to the inefficient bactericide action from the serum, opsonins and complement, altered function of neutrophils and to changes in the activity of the reticuloendothelial system . On the other hand, individuals with cirrhosis are severely affected by malnutrition and are therefore susceptible to complications probably derived from humoral and cellular immunologic deficiencies [2-7]. Energy undernourishment in its diverse forms including the subclinical, compromises the resistance to external agents such as bacteria, viruses, fungus and also chemical agents in a severe way . The recovery of immune functions after a nutritional substitution with supplements is encouraging and is another proof of the relationship between nutrition and immune state [9-13]. Cirrhotic patients have an increased intestinal permeability which enables the passage of endotoxins generated by gram negative bacteria from the intestine to the lymphatic and blood stream. The latter stimulates the liberation of mediators of the inflammatory response and nitric oxide, these being responsible in a great manner for the catabolic state and the hyperdynamic circulation of the disease .
Citation: Castellanos MI, Seijas OR, González D, Ronquillo M, del Rosario Abreu M, et al. (2011) Immune Alterations in Liver Cirrhosis: Its Relationship with Etiology, Child Pugh Stage and Malnutrition. J Nutr Disorders Ther 1:101.