Genus Alpinia under the family Zingiberaceae is one of the important medicinal plants in Vietnam, which has a greater role in day to day life of Vietnamese people. Many species viz. Alpinia galanga, Alpinia oxyphylla and Alpinia conchigera are traditionally used in folk remedies to treat diseases like cold, stomachache, bloating, digestive disorders and joint pain and are very effective. Until now, there are many species used to treat incurable diseases such as fatty liver, cirrhosis of liver and cancer. The present paper deals with the distribution and traditional knowledge of different species of Alpinia among Vietnamese.