WTrigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe chronic pain syndrome characterized by an excruciating, brief electric shock like paroxysmal pain in one or more divisions of the trigeminal nerve. The pain, also known as “tic douloureux”, is paroxystic and very severe. It can be triggered by a light cutaneous stimulus on a much localized spot on the face (the so called “trigger zone”). An early and accurate diagnosis is mandatory, as therapeutic interventions can reduce or eliminate pain attacks. Treatment of this painful condition may be varied, ranging from medical management to surgical interventions. This article deals with the etiopathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and drug treatment strategies for trigeminal neuralgia.