Most advances in technology come from a traditional pathway of basic research performed in university laboratories or in governmental institutions. That is generally followed by commercial laboratories in the private sector taking over the basic science research and conducting applied research to make the goods or services of value to the individual or organizational consumer. Such private sector Research and Development (R and D) is often a lot more Development than research. After a new potential drug product active ingredient is synthesized in a university laboratory, the industry takes over in determining the correct adult dosage, and develops a formulation that is optimal for the typical patient. Then the pharmaceutical firm conducts the required clinical trials, the registration submission, arranges for manufacture, staff training, physician education and overall marketing, promotion and sales.