Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common and deadly infectious disease associated with significant mortality and morbidity. TB is the second highest cause of mortality from an infectious agent accounting for 2 million deaths each year. There are more than 9 million new cases of TB every year worldwide, and incidence is declining only at a rate of less than 1% per year. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is the causative agent of TB, which is transmitted through aerosol droplets that are inhaled by the host and deposited in the lung which become the reservoir of infection. A recent surge in the antibiotic resistant strains of M. tb has further complicated the treatment of this deadly disease. Lack of understanding about the pathogenesis of the disease has hindered the development of effective preventive strategies against this fatal disease.