Vascular complications are the leading cause of death in diabetic patients worldwide. Adverse micro- and macrovascular changes, which may occur early in diabetes mellitus (DM), are a major problem faced by these patients. This includes accelerated incidence of atherosclerosis, stroke, peripheral artery disease, retinopathy, nephropathy and coronary disease leading to myocardial infarction (MI) . In recent years, progress in diabetes research has resulted in development of a series of anti-hyperglycemic drugs that successfully control glucose levels in most DM patients. However, these new treatments may not avert the onset of vascular complications. Alternative therapeutic strategies are clearly needed.