Probiotics–beneficial microorganisms–must be understood within the context of the microbiome and their interaction with the human host. The microbiome was first mentioned around 400 BC by Hippocrates, the father of medicine. Although he did not define the microbiome explicitly, he is quoted as saying “death sits in the bowels” and “bad digestion is the root of all evil”. These statements highlight what we believe today, namely the diet, the bowel, and overall health are intimately linked! The term “microbiome” was actually coined in 2001 by Joshua Lederberg to emphasize that microorganism inhabiting the body influence mammalian cellular processes and must be considered part of the genome.