Reef fishes represent integrated socio-ecological systems that include vulnerable species Which are important targets in fisheries. Reef fishes are usually important as food and in economic terms. They are often one of the principal targets of small-scale fishing activity in tropical waters. Groupers are top-level predators in reef systems. These species are protogynous hermaphrodites and are monandric, with sex inversion occurring between the 9th and 16th year of age. Reproductive modes appear to affect the vulnerability of species: female-first sex-changers appear to benefit, in terms of abundance, from the protection of marine habitats. Coral reefs are important to tourism as well as to fisheries. It has previously been suggested that the formulation of approaches to reef management and the associated tourism and fisheries activities be based on local institutions and knowledge. Such management should be embedded within the fishery, in collaboration with fishermen, in order to work towards food security, as well.