Aquatic ecosystems are continuously contaminated by manufactured pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). Non-regulated, multi-purpose PPCP contaminants enter aquatic systems through sewage/ wastewater treatment plants after consumption and use by humans and animals. These micro-pollutants receive increased attention worldwidesince significant levels of contamination have been found in various environmental compartments and organisms. Highly sophisticated equipment such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are reliable ways to determine PPCPs at sub-ppb levels from air, waters, sediments, effluents, aquatic organisms and human body fluids. Although the consequences of these pollutants are gradually becoming visible, their potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems and organisms are poorly known. Some studies have suggested that PPCPs are persistent and have bioaccumulation potential leading to ecological effects and abnormalities in fish. Other findings illustrate that PPCPs can impair swimming behavior in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), interfere with thyroid axis in the zebra fish (Danio rerio), or form adducts with hemoglobin and/or suitable protein breakdown PPCPs products. Thus, this review focuses on PPCPs emerging contaminants concern with regards to sources, occurrences, analytical methods, fate and biological transformation.
Citation: Mottaleb MA, Bellamy MK, Mottaleb MA, Islam MR (2015) Use of LCMS and GC-MS Methods to Measure Emerging Contaminants Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) in Fish. J Chromatogr Sep Tech 6:267. doi: 10.4172/2157-7064.1000267