Opioids like morphine have been widely used clinically as effective analgesics for acute and chronic pain. When opioids are used, the importance of care for side effects such as nausea, drowsiness and constipation is emphasized. In addition, continuous use of opioids develops tolerance in which the analgesic effect becomes attenuated. In this paper, we mainly discuss endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as one of the molecular mechanisms for the development of opioid tolerance.
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