Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi support the absorption of mineral nutrients by their host plants in exchange for photosynthate. We evaluated the growth responses of 64 rice cultivars to root colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Funneliformis mosseae, and identified the most positively responsive cultivar as indica rice, ARC5955. We compared the changes of mineral contents of ARC5955 under colonization by the fungus with those of a nonresponsive japonica cultivar, Nipponbare. Colonization increased the contents of beneficial elements such as P and decreased those of deleterious elements such as Cu and Al in both ARC5955 and Nipponbare. However, only ARC5955 showed strong growth stimulation. These results may provide new insights for breeding and yield increase of rice in sustainable agriculture.