Most research using animals is for the direct or indirect benefit of society. Furthermore, most research on animals is funded, directly or indirectly, by the public. For both these reasons, the public has the right and responsibility to discuss how animal research is conducted. The public expects animal experimentation to be not only scientifically justifiable and valid but also humane, meaning that it results in minimal or no pain, stress, distress, or other negative impact on the welfare of the animals involved. When laboratory animals are subjected to conditions that do cause pain or distress, then ethically—at least from a utilitarian perspective—the benefits must outweigh the costs. This ethical justification depends on the challenging balance between the benefits (primarily to humans) and the costs to experimental animals in the form of pain, distress, and euthanasia.
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