alexa The Genetics of Keratoconus: A Review

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The Genetics of Keratoconus: A Review

Keratoconus is the most common primary corneal ectatic disease [1,2]. Its name is derived from the Greek words kerato meaning cornea and conus meaning cone. Keratoconus is characterized by the noninflammatory, localized paraxial stromal thinning of the cornea which often results in bilateral and asymmetrical corneal distortion and anterior corneal protrusion [3]. Patients with corneal protrusion often develop high myopia and irregular astigmatism resulting in significant impairment of visual acuity [1]. Keratoconus usually appears during puberty or the second decade of the life and normally progresses for the following two decades until it stabilizes [4]. In severe cases, corneal scarring from decomposition and corneal edema further contribute to vision loss. The clinical symptoms of keratoconus vary with disease severity. In moderate and advanced cases of keratoconus, a very common sign is Fleischer’s ring around the cone base due to an accumulation of iron deposits [2].

 
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