The adenovirus (Ad) genome encodes one or two non-coding small RNAs called virus-associated (VA)-RNAs, that are transcribed by polymerase III and support Ad replication. A replication-incompetent Ad vector, which is widely used in not only gene therapy studies, including clinical trials, but also basic researches as a gene delivery vehicle, as well as wild-type Ad (WT-Ad) express VA-RNAs, and VA-RNAs activate innate immunity, including the production of type I interferons. In addition, VA-RNAs perturb cellular microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles via competitive inhibition of key components involved in the miRNA maturation pathway.
Wakabayashi K, Machitani M, Shimizu K, Tachibana M, Sakurai F, et al. (2015) Quantitative Analysis of Virus-associated RNAI Expression following Transduction with a Replication-incompetent Adenovirus Vector In Vitro and In Vivo. J Mol Genet Med 9:169. doi: 10.4172/1747-0862.1000169