The cardiovascular response to xenobiotic particle exposure has been studied over the last two decades, producing an extraordinary scope and depth of research findings. With the flourishing of nanotechnology, the term "xenobiotic particles" has expanded to encompass not only air pollution particulate matter (PM), but also anthropogenic particles such as engineered nanomaterials (ENM). Historically, the majority of research in these fields focused on pulmonary exposure and on adverse physiological effects associated with a host inflammatory response, or direct particle-tissue interactions. Because these hypotheses can neither account entirely for the deleterious cardiovascular effects of xenobiotic particle exposure, or their time course, the case for substantial neurological involvement is ostensible. Indeed, considerable evidence suggests that not only neural involvement is a major response element, but also a reality that needs to be more thoroughly investigated when assessing xenobiotic particle toxicities.
Source Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26386111