Chloroplast movements in Arabidopsis thaliana are controlled by two blue light photoreceptors, phototropin1 and phototropin2. Under weak blue light chloroplasts gather at cell walls perpendicular to the direction of incident light. This response, called chloroplast accumulation, is redundantly regulated by both phototropins. Under strong blue light chloroplasts move to cell walls parallel to the direction of incident light, this avoidance response being solely dependent on phototropin2. Temperature is an important factor in modulating chloroplast relocations. Here we focus on temperature effects in Arabidopsis leaves. At room temperature, under medium blue light chloroplasts start to move to cell walls parallel to the light direction and undergo a partial avoidance response. In the same conditions, at low temperatures the avoidance response is strongly enhanced—chloroplasts behave as if they were responding to strong light. Higher sensitivity of avoidance response is correlated with changes in gene expression. After cold treatment, in darkness, the expression of phototropin1 is down-regulated, while phototropin2 levels are up-regulated.
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