Xenografts and Periodontal Regeneration. Background: The goal of periodontal therapy is to regenerate a functional attachment apparatus. However, the extent of regeneration is variable, and depends on a variety of biologic and procedural factors. In this review, we summarize the current literature describing the use of xenografts for periodontal regeneration. Methods: An electronic search using the PubMed database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institues of Health was performed in April 2015. In addition, a manual search of the Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, and the International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry also was conducted, as well as additional papers derived from the initial search. Key search words included grafting, xenografts, regeneration, guided tissue regeneration, and immunogenicity. All available publication years were searched, although papers published in the last 10 years were given greater consideration. Conclusions: The literature supports the use of xenografts as an effective alternative in periodontal regeneration. Xenograft materials generally are biocompatible and widely accepted. When compared to open flap debridement, treatment of intrabony or furcation defects using bovine-derived bone generally results in enhanced clinical outcomes similar to other grafting materials used in periodontal therapy.
Robert E. Cohen, Asim Alsuwaiyan, Bing-Yan Wang