There are a number of interventions that can promote the social inclusion, or reduce the risk of exclusion, of older people. Interventions may be formal (e.g. rehabilitation therapy) or informal (e.g. social visits) and are provided by various resources that facilitate the social inclusion of older people. The full range of interventions can be considered from the perspective of an ecological systems model, which represents the interaction between numerous interconnected factors that overlap and impact one another. Viewed in this way, social inclusion is the product of the interactions between an individual’s biological and personal characteristics (ontosystem), the characteristics of significant people in the individual’s immediate environment (microsystem), the multiple characteristics of the surrounding environment in which the individual and their family live (Mesosystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem) and temporal factors (Chronosystem).